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|BEIJING Travis Benjamin Jersey , Aug. 8 (Xinhuanet) --Grabbing something hot and tasty on the move? You have the ancient Romans to thank. "Street food" was their invention, generally enjoyed with wine, gambling or even prostitutes.
Food on the go was an integral part of daily life in the empire, from nibbling on salted peas while watching gladiators battle in the Colosseum, to grabbing a sausage or fried fish snack after a dip in Rome's famed baths.
Feeding an empire of some 50 million people was no mean feat, as an exhibition in the Italian capital sets out to show in conjunction with Milan's 2015 Universal Exhibition on the themes of food and agriculture, running until the end of October.
Food scarcity could trigger uprisings or even topple leaders, a risk Emperor Augustus (63 BC to 14 AD) was unwilling to take. He made importing wheat Tyrell Williams Jersey , oil, wine and other foodstuffs a top priority, changing the face of Roman dining.
A typical day kicked off with the jentaculum, or breakfast－salted bread, dried fruit and eggs washed down with milk or wine.
That was followed by a quick prandium, or lunch, grabbed at the thermopolia－forerunners of fast food restaurants－or popinae, wine bars frequented by the lower classes where customers could grab a bite Jatavis Brown Jersey , dabble in a bit of gambling, or pop upstairs for some sex.
And after an afternoon's work or session at the thermal baths, the rich would throw sumptuous banquets, dining on anything from peacock tongues to baked dormice.
The rest of the population supped on fresh vegetables, stews and, occasionally, meat.
"The logistics deployed by the Romans to feed themselves is fascinating," said Orietta Rossini Trevor Williams Jersey , curator of the Ara Pacis exhibition, emphasising how hard it was to keep happy a capital of one million people－the biggest in history before the industrial revolution hit London.
The key lay in turning conquered Egypt into the empire's granary and ensuring wheat was transported cheaply to Rome all year round.
Private shipowners would carry up to 500 tonnes of wheat between Alexandria and Rome under the strict supervision of the state in an early example of today's partnerships between the private and public sectors, Rossini said.
This made the emperor "the sole distributor of daily bread, the only one responsible for the supply of provisions". Augustus boosted his popularity by distributing 35 kilos of wheat a month free to 20,000 citizens-freemen over 17 years old.
Egypt's role was later passed on to the empire's African provinces, with grain shipped from Carthage in Tunisia to Rome's Ostia port in just three days and nights. Wine, sold at rock-bottom prices, was also imported Spencer Pulley Jersey , along with oil and meat.
The wealthy may have gone out of the way to impress with exotic dishes, but the empire's leaders were fond above all of fruit and vegetables: Emperor "Tiberius loved cucumber, while Augustus loved asparagus", Rossini said.
Samples of carbonized foodstuffs discovered during excavations at the ancient town of Herculaneum-destroyed along with Pompeii by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79-are on display at the exhibition, including wizened Roman-era figs.
The much-lauded "Mediterranean diet" began here: broad beans, peas, lentils and onions went in stews, with pine nuts Russell Okung Jersey , dates and almonds thrown in. Cumin, coriander, sesame and mint seeds were used to spice up dishes.
The globalization of foodstuffs seen in today's supermarkets was already in action, with wine imported from Gaul and Cyprus, oil from Andalusia, honey from Greece and prized garum－the fermented fish sauce which drove Romans crazy－from Portugal.
Food was such an important commodity that Emperor Diocletian, who ruled from 284 to 305, imposed price controls. But some dishes remained beyond the household budget for some－with chicken a particularly expensive and rare treat.
While a baker would on average earn 50 pieces of silver a day Philip Rivers Jersey , he would have to spend 60 to buy two chickens, 30 for a half a litre of Falernian wine from the Bay of Naples, 12 for 300 grams of pork and four for 25 figs.
(Source: China Daily)
JAKARTA, Aug. 16 (Xinhua) -- Chinese shuttlers Zhang NanZhao Yunlei retained their mixed doubles world champions here on Sunday, beating their compatriots Liu ChengBao Yixin 21-17, 21-11 in the final.
The victory was ZhangZhao's third championship titles following the No. 1 pair of China's triumph in 2011 and 2014.
"We are happy because today is the last day of the tournament. But actually our performance today was not as good as our performance in the semifinal," Zhang Nan told a press conference after the match.
Zhao Yunlei was scheduled in women's doubles final to be held later in the day. She will pair with Tian Qing against fourth seeds Christina PedersenKamilla Rytter Juhl from Denmark.
BEIJING, May 27 (Xinhua) -- The body of Yang Jiang Dan Fouts Jersey , renowned Chinese playwright, author and translator, was cremated Friday morning in Beijing.
Yang died at the age of 105 in Beijing at 1:10 a.m. Wednesday.
The funeral was simplified without a farewell ceremony according to Yang's wishes, an obituary released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) stated.
All the antiques, calligraphy and paintings collected by Yang and her husband, Qian Zhongshu, were donated to the National Museum of China before her death, the obituary said.
Books Rayshawn Jenkins Chargers Jersey , manuscripts and other property owned by the couple were also donated, it added.
In 2001, Yang and Qian donated all their royalties to Tsinghua University and established a scholarship that has benefited more than 1,000 students.
Born Yang Jikang in Beijing, Yang studied at Soochow University and then Tsinghua University in the 1930s. She married Qian, a household name in China for his novel "Fortress Besieged," which depicted the lives of Chinese intellectuals in the 1930s. Qian died in 1998.